Fuels Institute Examines Environmental Impact of EVs vs. ICEVs
The Fuel Institute released a new report titled Life Cycle Analysis Comparison – Electric and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles.
The report provides an evaluation of the life-cycle costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV).
The GHG life cycle includes vehicle manufacturing, fuel production and distribution, operation, and end of life (disposal, remanufacturing and recycling).
For each type of vehicle, greenhouse gas emissions and total cost of ownership (including purchase, insurance, fuel, maintenance, and repairs) are estimated.
The greatest amount of GHG emitted by BEVs are associated with electricity generation (72 percent) while the greatest GHG emissions for a ICEV are associated with fuel consumption (73 percent) during vehicle operation.
The method of electricity generation; however, has a significant impact on GHG emissions.
BEV in markets with low carbon grid emit 71 percent fewer tons of greenhouse gasses than ICEV; however, BEV in markets with extremely high carbon grid emit 16 percent more than ICEV and 59 percent more than HEV.
Based on the U.S. average electricity mix from renewable and nonrenewable energy sources, over its lifetime GHG emissions are estimated to be 39 tons for the BEV, 47 tons for the HEV, and 66 tons for the ICEV.
The Total cost of ownership over the vehicle’s lifetime is estimated as $70,457 for the BEV, $74,618 for the HEV and $81,581 for the ICEV.
The report also notes that biofuels have a lower GHG emissions compared to gasoline and evaluates the impact biofuels can have on the GHG emissions for ICEV.
This shows the importance of reducing the carbon intensity of the liquid fuels and the role biofuels can play in the overall reduction of GHG emissions.